Referencing conventions

References in the text

The author's surname and year of publication should appear in brackets within the text:
For example:
There is some evidence (Smith 1995) that these conclusions are incorrect.

                       or

Smith (1995) has produced evidence that these conclusions are incorrect.

If you are giving direct quotations or referring to particular sections of a document you should identify the page numbers. For a first citation, these should appear after the date within the brackets; use a colon to separate the date and page numbers.

For example:
It has been reported that: "Coherence and consistency in teaching, and a safe orderly climate, are positively associated with educational achievement" (Smith 1996: 151).

For subsequent citations within the same section of your paper, when there are has been no reference in between to another author, you should use the following abbreviations: page (p.); pages (pp.)

For example:

It has been reported that: "Coherence and consistency in teaching, and a safe orderly climate, are positively associated with educational achievement" (Jones 1996: 151).Moreover, Jones refers to the importance of relationships within the class (p. 143) and to the pedagogic preferences of teachers (pp. 152-3).

When an author has published more than one cited document in the same year these are distinguished by adding lower case letters after the year within the brackets.

For example:
There is some evidence (Smith 1995a) that these conclusions are incorrect.

If more than one citation is referred to within a sentence, list them all, by date (earliest first) and then alphabetically, separated by semicolons.

For example:
There is growing evidence for the link between these two factors (Alcock 1995; Jones 1995; Smith 2000)
 
For sources that you have not actually seen but which are referred to in another work, cite  the secondary source where you read it.

For example:
Smith (1998, quoted in Young 2005: 47).

For sources written by two authors, you should include both names. For more than two authors,  you should use 'et al.'after the name of the first author.

For example:

There is some evidence (Smith & Jones 1995) that these conclusions are incorrect.

There is some evidence (Smith et al. 1995) that these conclusions are incorrect.


 

Listing References

Book, journal article, book chapter
The list of references is arranged in alphabetical order of author's surname, followed by the date of publication (earliest first).

Then if more than one item has been published during a specific year follow the date with a letter (1995a, 1995b, etc). The title of the publication should either be in italics or underlined.

For example:
Al-Lamki, A.& Suleiman M. (1992) Higher Education and Under-Employment in Oman, Sultanate of Oman: Sultan Qaboos University.
Al-Talib, K. (1990) Modern Oman, Michigan: Bell and Howell.
Arnot, M. (2000) Gender Relations and Schooling in the New Century. Conflicts and Challenges, Compare, 30(3), 294-310.
Brown, P. & Lauder H. (1996) Education, Globalisation and Economic Development, The Journal of Education Policy, 11(1), 1-25.
Donn, G. (1998) International Policy Making: Global Discourses and the NQF. In W. Morrow & K. King (eds.) Vision and Reality, Cape Town: University of Cape Town Press.

Authors
Multiple authors
Where there are less than five give all their names.
 
For example:
Ledwith, S. & Manfredi, S.
Elliott, B., Matthews, R. & Schreiber, D.

Where there are five or more authors give the name of the first four authors only, followed by et al.

For example:
Elliott, B., Matthews, R., Richardson, A., Schreiber, D., et al.

Corporate authors
If no person is named as author, and the title page implies that an organisation or group of persons acting as a body is mainly responsible for the book, then treat the group or organisation as the author.

For example:
World Bank (1999) African development indicators 1998/99. Washington, DC., World Bank

Unknown author
If no person is named as author, and there is nothing to imply a particular group or organisation is responsible then use Anon (for Anonymous).

For example:

Anon (2005) Brain Storm. New Scientist, 5th March, p. 43

Electronic Sources

Electronic sources, such as websites should be listed using the following style:

Rodger, J. & Hunter, A. (2007) National Evaluation of Determined to Succeed-Phase 2: Early Impact Across Scotland, Scottish Executive Enterprise and Lifelong Learning Department. Online at http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/ 2007/1905615/0 (accessed 9/10/07).